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Radical activists have provoked the ire and wrath of the U. Webb, Gary. This hostage crisis involved American and European citizens who were captured and held hostage in Lebanon by terrorists associated with the Lebanon-based Muslim militant organization Hezbollah, although it is also believed that the Iranian government played a role in orchestrating the plot. It was a particularly noteworthy trial due to the participants as well as the unconventional strategy of the defense and ultimate outcome. This was done by reaching a compromise to essentially barter weapon sales to Iran for the release of the hostages. Some of those who were pardoned even managed to later become members of the administration of President George W. Brooklyn: South End Press, The one thing each of these accidents all have in common is that they were entirely preventable.{/INSERTKEYS}{/PARAGRAPH} This was enough to convince the jury that the defendants were not guilty, meaning that they also in effect found the Central Intelligence Agency guilty as charged of much more serious crimes, including but not limited to arranging assassinations, torturing and generally terrorizing Nicaraguan civilians, and lying about its actions. American Political Trials. Bush, who was the vice-president at the time the scandal erupted. With the testimony of the various witnesses, however, the defense was successfully able to paint a portrait of the CIA as a rogue organization operating in the name, but not in the sight, of the American people. Johnston, David. They charged that the CIA was an evil criminal enterprise that had no business recruiting students on college campuses because university policy forbade criminal organizations from doing so. He brought one of the jurors to tears with his description of the atrocities he had committed on behalf of the CIA, which was an encouraging sign for the defense. law enforcement. President Reagan was ultimately cleared of any responsibility for the fiasco, although it is questionable whether or not he did in fact play a role or at least have knowledge of it. New York: Viking Press, Johnson, David. This is entirely possible; as subsequent investigations by a Congressional committee headed by Senator John Kerry as well as independent journalists confirmed that CIA personnel were aware of cocaine transactions and large shipments of drugs into the U. Accounts vary, but this is difficult to verify due to the secrecy that still surrounds the scandal as well as the fact that large volumes of documents relating to it were destroyed or withheld from investigators by Reagan administration officials. This served to prove that legal options for preventing CIA crimes had been exhausted. An example of an appropriate use for this would be trespassing into a burning building in order to save someone trapped inside. officials involved in the affair were fully aware of it yet chose to withhold this information from the DEA and other U. The Boston Phoenix. This part of the scheme in particular was devised and supervised primarily by U. During this portion of the trial, McGhee, Chamorro, and others including the doctors who had visited Nicaragua all testified that they had witnessed the CIA commit these atrocities in Nicaragua, including but not limited to the systematic kidnapping, torture, and murder of civilians. enlisted Israel to sell the weapons to Iran, which would then be reimbursed by the U. Disobedience and Democracy. Eventually however, the CIA began providing weapons directly to the Iranians and using the profits to continue funding the Contra insurgency. Taking a radical stance against the U. Some accounts even suggest that U. Although the outcome of the trial was both unprecedented and unlikely, it serves as an ideal example of what can be accomplished through the proper and successful use of civil disobedience, and serves as inspiration in proving that relatively powerless individuals still can make a difference by protesting, and stand up against the authority and might of the U. The Contra rebels in Nicaragua were one such example of this. However, all were either acquitted or eventually received pardons during the final days of the presidency of George H. Coren, Mary Rephlo, David Kepley, and Charles South. It was a unique occurrence in history, in that there are very few if any other examples of instances in which protestors, or for that matter anyone else, charged with a crime were allowed to employ a necessity defense and were successful in beating the charges. The defendants were represented by attorney Leonard Weinglass, who had previously defended Abbie Hoffman during the famous Chicago Seven Trial. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, Committee, Congressional. government and law enforcement in the past for doing what they felt was necessary, and some had to deal with extremely serious consequences for it. They were eventually forcibly removed from the building by state police who were called in from surrounding areas, arrested for trespassing, and loaded onto buses to be transported to the local jail in Northampton. CIA On Campus. Walsh, Lawrence E. In order to do this as effectively as possible, the defense enlisted several prominent figures to serve as witnesses to testify regarding the crimes alleged to have been committed by the CIA. Needless to say, supporters of both sides were surprised by the verdict. by the Contra personnel and directly aided drug dealers to raise money for the Contras. military aide Oliver North. Many people, including both the prosecution and defense, initially doubted that average middle-Americans would acknowledge that the CIA had committed serious crimes and agree that protestors were justified in peacefully breaking the law in order to stop them. It was alleged that the Contras were heavily involved in trafficking drugs into the U. Occasionally, however, radical activists who felt the need to protest against what they considered unjust actions committed by the U. In employing a necessity defense, the defense argues that the defendant s should not be held liable for their actions as a crime because their conduct was necessary in order to prevent some greater harm. Demonstrations and protests were organized to coincide with the arrival of CIA recruiters on campus and advertized in collegiate newspapers and bulletins. Phoenix The final condition of the defense was to prove to the jury that the defendants were sincerely motivated, patriotic Americans who were correct and justified in believing that their actions could bring about change. As the buses tried to leave, their path was blocked by a group of yet more protesters that included Amy Carter, who were all subsequently arrested themselves and charged with disorderly conduct. Particularly in the Central American country of Nicaragua, the CIA continually backed and funded a terroristic rebel insurgent group known as the Contras, a name that reflected the fact that they opposed the legitimately elected Communist government. military involvement in Vietnam. National Archives. Ellsberg, Daniel. In light of the allegations of wrongdoing by the CIA, college students at UMass Amherst and other schools throughout the country took issue with the fact that representatives for the CIA were permitted to hold recruitment sessions on college and university campuses. with Contras personnel aboard carrying cocaine. Even after the passage of the Boland Amendment, which was a congressional legislative amendment specifically intended to prohibit the CIA from supporting the Contras, the CIA continued to do just this by finding ways to circumvent the restrictions of the amendment or else simply ignoring them. Massachusetts Daily Collegian. airplanes used to supply arms to the Nicaraguan Contras were being flown back to the U. New York City: Seven Stories Press, Zinn, Howard. Dark Alliance. The U. All together, 68 protestors were arrested, and of these thirteen of them, including Hoffman and Carter, chose to fight the charges in court. Robert W. Military officials and members of the Reagan Administration involved in the scandal were subjected to considerable media scrutiny, and fourteen administration officials, including then- Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger and Lieutenant Colonel Oliver North, were indicted and charged with crimes. Disobedience and Democracy outlines examples of nine fallacies where democracy fails and civil disobedience is the only option, and basically serves as a manifesto in a sense for laying out the justifications, guidelines, and principles necessary in practicing and carrying out civil disobedience as a means of enacting social and political change when all other traditional options have been exhausted. Throughout the Cold War, the CIA on behalf of the U. The prosecution had no stake in defending the CIA, and made it clear that they had no intention of doing so; their focus was simply on whether or not the protesters were legally justified in occupying the building in an attempt to prevent the CIA from committing crimes. In order to circumvent the arms embargo on Iran, the U. Bush , Jr. government had secretly been involved in helping to fund, arm, and support various anti-communist rebel groups and insurgencies in Communist or Communist-controlled countries all over the globe. Secrets: A Memoir of Vietnam and the Pentagon Papers. citizens took it upon themselves to protest and demonstrate against the actions of the CIA. However it is particularly significant due to its outcome as well as the means by which this was achieved. {PARAGRAPH}{INSERTKEYS}Many of the accomplishments achieved during the era owed some credit to the organizing and activism efforts of students, and these efforts have served as inspiration for subsequent generations of student activists who have dedicated their time and efforts to working for causes intended to benefit other people suffering from social injustices. The intention of the demonstration was to raise awareness and get press coverage for the crimes of the CIA, and to get people to at least think and talk about the issues, and the demonstrators were willing to be convicted in order to have a chance to make their case. The demonstrators occupied the building for over seven hours and were successful in disrupting the planned CIA recruitment session. Four members of the Radical Student Union at UMass started the anti-CIA recruitment protest movement here on October 4th by forming the Stop CIA Recruitment Organizing Committee in response to seeing CIA recruitment ads on campus. Phoenix, Boston. These protests gained considerable support and occurred on campuses across the country, including the University of Colorado and University of Central Florida, however the UMass protest garnered the most attention due to the participation and arrests of famed radical activist Abbie Hoffman and daughter of former President Carter, Amy Carter. Perhaps this related to the outcome of the UMass trial. The Harvard Crimson. Washington D. Due in part to this, Iran, which was in the midst of a war with neighboring Iraq, was subjected to an arms embargo by the U. Although it is unusual for defendants to be allowed to employ this type of defense, the prosecution allowed it in order to avoid being perceived as unfair by the predominantly liberal community of Northampton. government also had dealings in Middle-Eastern countries such as Lebanon and Iran, due to the ongoing hostage crisis involving these countries. government and military officials that intended to secure the release of American hostages from the Middle East and simultaneously allow for funds to be secretly channeled to the Nicaraguan Contras. The nature of the necessity defense meant that finding the defendants guilty would simultaneously imply that the CIA was innocent, and vice-versa. One such instance occurred here at UMass in the fall of when student activists decided to protest the presence of CIA recruiters on campus, due to the fact that they considered the CIA a criminal organization which had no place on a state university campus. Government were able to achieve victories, and even win legal support for their actions. The protest culminated on November 24th with the occupation of Munson Hall, which resulted in the arrests of 68 protestors, including Hoffman and Carter. The plan for the protest on the 24th was to occupy the building in which the CIA recruitment session was to take place in order to prevent it from being allowed to occur.